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[機率論] Martingale (3) - Example

Example: 令 $\{X_n\}$ 為 Martingale with Filtration $\mathcal{F_n}$,假設 $T$ 為 stopping time。試證 $Y_n:=X_{\min(n,T)}$ 為 Martingale with $\mathcal{F_n}$。

Proof:
首先證明 (1) $E|Y_n| < \infty $:
注意到:
\[\begin{array}{l}
{Y_n}: = {X_{n \wedge T}} = {X_n}{1_{n{\rm{ < }}T}} + {X_T}{1_{T \le n}}\\
\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
{}&{}&{}&{}
\end{array} = {X_n}{1_{n{\rm{ < }}T}} + \sum\limits_{m = 1}^n {{X_T}{1_{T = k}}}
\end{array}\]故
\[\begin{array}{l}
E\left| {{Y_n}} \right| = E\left| {{X_{n \wedge T}}} \right| = E\left| {{X_n}{1_{n{\rm{ < }}T}} + \sum\limits_{m = 1}^n {{X_T}{1_{T = k}}} } \right|\\
\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
{}&{}&{}&{}
\end{array} \le E\left| {{X_n}{1_{n{\rm{ < }}T}}} \right| + \sum\limits_{m = 1}^n {E\left| {{X_T}{1_{T = k}}} \right|} \\
\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
{}&{}&{}&{}
\end{array} \le E\left| {{X_n}} \right| + \sum\limits_{m = 1}^n {E\left| {{X_T}} \right|}  < \infty
\end{array}\]

接著我們證明 (2) : $Y_n \in \mathcal{F}_n $
觀察 \[{Y_n}: = {…